Serra da Lousã, a Natura 2000 Network site, represents the southwest end of the Central Mountain Range, a system also comprising the Serra da Estrela and Serra do Açor. It is distinctive due to its rugged relief and quartzite crests of significant value.
Its location creates a contrast of reliefs. To the north, the slopes are steep, with precipitous ridges and nestling valleys, whereas to the south, they are gentler, due to the influence of the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Together with the climatic variations, the vegetation is also diverse. As a result, not only holm oaks (Quercus ilex), but also the pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) and the Pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica) can be found here.
The Serra da Lousã is crisscrossed by a set of watercourses from the Zêzere and Mondego river basin developments, an important feature for the fauna and flora of the area. In the vast forest area it is worth mentioning the riparian vegetation, such as the common alder (Alnus glutinosa), which accompanies the watercourses, the Portugal laurel (Prunus lusitanica) and, deserving special attention, the European holly tree. In addition, it is a site of great importance for the conservation of the Iberian emerald lizard (Lacerta scheriberi) and the golden-striped salamander (Chioglossa lusitanica).